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Texto & Contexto. ISSN:0104-0707 2015 v24esp r24s033

 

 

 

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Psychological distress, family dysfunction, maltreatment during childhood of students at a private university, Bogota Colombia

Juan Daniel Gómez,1 Robert Mann,2 Hayley Hamilton,3 Pat Erickson,4 Bruna Brands,5 Norman Giesbrecht,6 Maria da Gloria Wright,7 Francisco Cumsille,8 Jaime Sapag,9 Akwatu Khenti10
1
Ph.D. Professor Pontificia Universidad Javeriana de Bogotá. Bogotá, Colombia. 2Ph.D. Investigator, CAMH, University of Toronto. Toronto, Canadá. 3Ph.D. Investigator, CAMH, University of Toronto. Toronto, Canada. 4Ph.D. Investigator, CAMH, University of Toronto. Toronto, Canada. 5Ph.D. Senior Scientist, Office of Research and Surveillance, Drug Strategy and Controlled Substances Programme, Health Canada and Public Health and Regulatory Policies, CAMH, University of Toronto. Toronto, Canada. 6Ph.D. Investigator, CAMH, University of Toronto. Toronto, Canada. 7Ph.D. Former Coordinator Educational Development Program Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD), Secretariat for Multidimensional Security. Washington, USA. 8Ph.D. Director Interamerican Drug Observatory, CICAD, Secretariat for Multidimensional Security at Organization of American States. Washington, USA. 9Ph.D. MD, MPH, CAMH. Toronto, Canada. 10octoral Student. Director, Office of Transformative Global Health, CAMH. Toronto, Canada

Texto Contexto Enferm 24(Esp): 33-39

 

 

 

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Gómez, Juan Daniel; Mann, Robert; Hamilton, Hayley; Erickson, Pat; Brands, Bruna; Giesbrecht, Norman; Wright, Maria da Gloria; Cumsille, Francisco; Sapag, Jaime; Khenti, Akwatu. Psychological distress, family dysfunction, maltreatment during childhood of students at a private university, Bogota Colombia. Texto Contexto Enferm, 2015, 24(Esp). Disponible en <http://www.index-f.com/textocontexto/2015/24s033.php> Consultado el

 

Abstract

This article is an exploratory, correlational, descriptive and retrospective research aimed to study the potential relationship between maltreatment during childhood and the use of psychoactive drugs among university students. Self-reported child maltreatment was assessed through the Adverse Childhood Experiences Questionnaire, and to evaluate family dysfunction and distress factors the Kessler Scale (K10) was applied to 302 students. The main indicators of childhood maltreatment were; negligence 18.2%, emotional abuse 17.9%, physical abuse 13.6%, sexual abuse 2.0%. Other relevant indicators were: mother/caregiver assaulted 9.3%, mother/caregiver repeatedly assaulted for at least a few minutes 5.3% and mother/caregiver wounded by knife or gunshot 3.6%. We conclude that there is a significant relationship between "emotional abuse" and "physical abuse"; and between "emotional abuse" and "family dysfunction"; and the detection of gender violence in families by socio-economic statuses.
Key-words: Child abuse/ Students/ Family relations/ Domestic violence.
 

Resumen
Malestar psicológico, disfunción familiar, maltrato de estudiantes durante la niñez en una universidad privada de Bogotá, Colombia

Estudio derivado de una investigación exploratoria, correlacional-descriptiva, que estudió retrospectivamente el maltrato durante la infancia y su posible relación con el uso de sustancias psicoactivantes entre estudiantes universitarios. El maltrato infantil auto-reportado se evaluó mediante el Cuestionario de Experiencias Adversas Durante la Niñez, y para evaluar la disfunción familiar y el malestar psicológico (distress) se aplicó la Escala de Kessler (K10) a 302 estudiantes. Los principales indicadores de maltrato infantil fueron: negligencia =18,2%; maltrato emocional =17.9%; maltrato físico =13.6%; abuso sexual =2.0%. Otros indicadores relevantes fueron: madre/cuidadora agredida, 9.3%; madre/cuidadora golpeada repetidamente por al menos algunos minutos, 5.3%; y madre/cuidadora herida con arma blanca o de fuego, 3.6%. Se concluye que existe relación entre el "abuso emocional y el "abuso físico", y entre el "abuso emocional" y la "disfunción familiar" así como la detección de violencia de género en familias según estrato socioeconómico.
Palabras clave: Maltrato a los niños/ Estudiantes/ Relaciones familiares/ Violencia doméstica.
 

Resumo
Distress psicológico, disfunção familiar, maus-tratos na infância de estudantes de uma universidade privada, Bogotá, Colombia

Este é um estudo exploratório-descritivo, retrospectivo, com o objetivo de avaliar a potencial relação entre maus-tratos na infância e o uso de substâncias psicoactivas entre os estudantes universitários. Os maus-tratos na infância foram avaliados por meio do questionário "Experiências Adversas na Infância", e para avaliar a disfunção familiar e os fatores de sofrimento psíquico foi aplicado a Scale Kessler (K10) a 302 estudantes. Os principais indicadores de maus-tratos na infância foram: negligência =18,2%; abuso emocional =17,9%, abuso físico =13,6%; abuso sexual =2,0%. Outros indicadores relevantes foram: abuso à mãe/cuidador (9,3%), a mãe/cuidador repetidamente espancado por pelo menos alguns minutos (5,3%) e mãe/cuidador ferido por arma branca ou arma de fogo (3,6%). Conclui-se que há relação significativa entre maus-tratos físico e emocional e entre maus-tratos emocional e "disfunção familiar", bem como, a detecção de violência de gênero nas famílias de acordo com os estratos socioeconômicos.
Palavras chave: Maus-tratos na infância/ Estudantes/ Relações familiares/ Violência doméstica.
 

References

1. Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe. Maltrato infantil: una dolorosa realidad puertas adentro. Desafíos [online]. 2009 [access 2010 Jun 21]; 9. Available at: http://www.unicef.org/lac/Boletin-Desafios9-CEPAL-UNICEF(2).pdf

2. Johnston TP. Cultural-level influences on substance use & misuse. Subst Use Misuse. 2007; 42(2-3):305-16.

3. Hartzler B, Fromme K. Cognitive-behavioral profiles of college risk-takers with Type II and psychopathic personality traits. Addict Behav. 2003; 28(2):315-26.

4. McCarthy DM, Kroll LS, Smith GT. Integrating desinhibition and learning risk for alcohol use. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2001 Nov; 9(4):389-98.

5. Moeller FG, Dougherty DM. Impulsivity and substance abuse: what is the connection?. Addict Disord Their Treat. 2002; 1(1):3-10.

6. Félix-Ortiz M, Newcomb MD. Vulnerability for drug use among Latino adolescents. J Community Psychol. 1999; 27(3):257-80.

7. Schuckit MA. Low level of response to alcohol as a predictor of future alcoholism. Am J Psychiatry. 1994 Feb; 151(2):184-9.

8. Instituto Nacional de Medicina Legal y Ciencias Forenses (CO). Informe Masatugo 2004-2008. Bogotá (CO): Instituto Nacional de Medicina Legal y Ciencias Forenses; 2009.

9. Caracol Radio Colombia [en línea]. Las cifras de maltrato infantil se dispararon en Colombia. Caracol Radio Colombia. 2011 Nov 21 [access: 2012 Jul 26]. Disponible en: http://www.caracol.com.co/noticias/actualidad/las-cifras-de-maltrato-infantil-se-dispararon-en-colombia-icbf/20111121/nota/1581262.aspx

10. Rothman EF, Edwards EM, Heeren T, Hingson RW. Adverse childhood experiences predict earlier age of drinking onset: results from a representative US sample of current or former drinkers. Pediatrics. 2008 Aug; 122(2):e298-304.

11. Kessler R, Barker PR, Colpe LJ, Epstein JF, Gfroerer JC, Hiripi E. Screening for serious mental illness in the general population. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003; 60(2):184-9.

12. Righthand S, Kerr B, Drach K. Child maltreatment risk assessments: an evaluation guide. Binghampton. New York: The Haworth Maltreatment and Trauma Press; 2003.

13. Bernstein D, Fink L. Childhood trauma questionnaire: a retrospective self-report. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation; 2008.

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