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Avances en Enfermería 0121-4500 35(3) 2017 353333

 

 
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Avances en Enfermería
[av.enferm. -Col-]
2017 sep-dic; 35(3):
333-344

Recibido: 21/12/2015
Aceptado: 12/07/2017

La fiebre en el niño: una mirada reflexiva a las prácticas de cuidado

Ana Ligia Escobar Tobón
Candidata a Doctora en Enfermería. Profesora Asociada, Universidad de Antioquia. Medellín, Colombia. E-mail: ana.escobar@udea.edu.co

*La revisión de la literatura se derivó de la tesis doctoral Los significados que construyen los cuidadores formales e informales sobre al cuidado al niño con fiebre.

Cómo citar este documento:
Escobar Tobón, Ana Ligia. La fiebre en el niño: una mirada reflexiva a las prácticas de cuidado. Avances en Enfemería. 2017 sep-dic, 35(3). En: <http://www.index-f.com/rae/353/353333.php> Consultado el

Resumen

Objetivo: Realizar un análisis crítico- reflexivo de las prácticas rutinarias de los profesionales de enfermería y de los cuidadores familiares en el cuidado del niño con fiebre, a fin de incentivar un cuidado basado en evidencia científica que asegure el bienestar infantil. Síntesis de contenido: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de artículos científicos publicados entre los años 2007 y 2017, en las bases de datos ebscohost, ScienceDirect, medline, PubMed, cinahl, Web of Science y cuiden®, para lo cual se utilizaron los descriptores y sus combinaciones en español, portugués e inglés Fiebre; Cuidadores; Niño. Se elaboró un compendio de 45 artículos seleccionados y analizados que contenía las prácticas de cuidado con convergencias, divergencias y complementariedades. Los resultados se agruparon en los siguientes cinco temas: Concepción histórica de la fiebre; La fiebrefobia: una concepción en las actuales prácticas de cuidado; El baño de esponja: una práctica ancestral controvertida; El uso de antipiréticos: una rutina en contravía de la salud y la vida de los niños; La fiebre: en busca de una mirada desde su beneficio. Conclusiones: La concepción de la fiebre infantil centrada en el miedo y en el daño permanece. Las acciones de cuidado más comunes, como el baño de esponja y el uso/abuso de antipiréticos, son cuestionadas desde la evidencia científica, demostrando los efectos deletéreos que producen en la salud del niño. El cuidado del niño, después de una evaluación individualizada, deberá enfocarse en el confort, en un ambiente fresco y tranquilo y en el aumento de la ingesta de líquidos para evitar la deshidratación u otras complicaciones.
Palabras clave: Fiebre/ Niño/ Cuidadores/ Enfermería Basada en la Evidencia/ Cuidado del Niño.
 

Resumo
Febre em crianças: um olhar reflexivo sobre as práticas de cuidados

Objetivo: Realizar uma análise crítico-reflexiva das práticas de rotina por profissionais de enfermagem e cuidadores familiares, em cuidados para a criança com febre, que permita promover a busca de cuidados baseados em evidências científicas que garanta o bem-estar das crianças. Síntese do conteúdo: Uma revisão da literatura foi feita a partir de artigos científicos escritos entre 2007 e 2017 em bancos de dados ebscohost, ScienceDirect, medline, PubMed, cinahl, Web of Science e cuiden®. Foram utilizados os descritores Febre; Cuidadores; Criança e suas combinações em espanhol, português e inglês. Foi preparado um compêndio e análise dos 45 artigos selecionados que continha as práticas de cuidado com as convergências, divergências e complementaridades. Os resultados foram agrupados em cinco temas: Concepção histórica da febre; Febrefobia: uma concepção nas atuais práticas de cuidado; O banho de esponja: uma prática ancestral controvertida; O uso de antipiréticos: uma rotina em contramão da saúde e a vida dos meninos; A febre: em procura de uma mirada desde seu benefício. Conclusões: A concepção de febre na criança centrada sobre o medo e os danos, permanece. As ações de cuidados mais comuns tais como banho de esponja e o uso e abuso de antipiréticos são questionados a partir da evidência, mostrando os efeitos deletérios produzidos sobre a saúde das crianças. Cuidar de crianças, após um enfoque individualizado na avaliação, deve procurar conforto, um ambiente fresco e tranquilo, e aumentar a ingestão de líquidos para evitar a desidratação ou outras complicações.
Palavras chave: Febre/ Criança/ Cuidadores/ Enfermagem Baseada em Evidências/ Cuidado da Criança.
 

Abstract
Fever in children: a critical view of caring practices

Objective: To carry out a critical and reflexive analysis of nursing professionals and family caregivers routine practices in feverish child caring, in order to promote the caring based on scientific evidence that assures child well-being. Content synthesis: A literature review of scientific articles published between 2007 and 2017 was conducted in following databases: ebscohost, ScienceDirect, medline, PubMed, cinahl, Web of Science, and cuiden®, for which descriptors, and their combinations in Spanish, Portuguese and English Fever; Caregivers; and Child were used. A compendium of 45 selected and analyzed articles was elaborated containing the caring practices with convergences, divergences and complementarities. Results were pooled into five topics, as follows: Historical conception of fever; Fever phobia: a conception in current caring practices; Sponge bath: a controversial ancestral practice; The use of antipyretics: a routine contrary to the health and children's life; Fever: in pursuit of a benefits perspective. Conclusions: The conception of fever in children by focusing on the fear and the damage still remains. The most common caring actions, such as sponge bath and antipyretics use and abuse, have been questioned from the scientific evidence, showing the deleterious effects that they produce on the children's health. After a case-bycase assessment, child caring should focus on comfort, on a cool and quiet environment, and on increase in fluid intake to avoid dehydration and other complications.
K
ey-words: Fever/ Child/ Caregivers/ Evidence-Based Nursing/ Child Care.
 
 

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FORESTOMA Living Lab Enfermería en Estomaterapia
CIBERE Consejo Iberoamericano de Editores de Revistas de Enfermería